Flask includes a Python decorator which allows you to run a function before the first request from a user is processed. The problem I had is that the function doesn’t get run until after a user has visited a page for the first time. This article describes a way to solve that. If you haven’t heard of Flask before it’s a Python microframework for web applications. With Flask you can create small or large websites. While this article isn’t a getting started guide for Flask, it will include a complete working application.
A lot of people who aren’t familiar with Napalm tend to laugh nervously when you suggest they use it in their network. The name Napalm is partly based on getting that perfect acronym and partly a desire to incinerate the old way of doing things and move to network automation. This article is about explaining what Napalm is and what lies behind the acronym.
A lot of new networking modules were released as part of Ansible 2.1. The Cisco IOS, IOS XR, NXOS, Junos and Arista EOS platforms got three common modules, the platform_config, platform_command and platform_template. The command and template modules more or less explains themselves. The config modules have some more tricks to them and I’ve gotten a few questions about how they work. In this article I’m going to focus on the ios_config module and show how you can use it to configure Cisco IOS devices. Future version of Ansible will add more parameters, this article is for Ansible 2.1.
It can get quite exciting when you start to think about network automation and what it can do for you and your network. Once you’ve automated everything you can instead focus on deep work to evolve your business. However this daydream can soon fade away as you start to think about the things you can’t automate, or at least don’t know how to do. Ivan Pepelnjak wrote a piece about automating the exceptions. The post is based on a discussion he had with Rok Papež and his ideas about handling exceptions in an automated way. While the strategy presented is great I think it overlooks some parts when it comes to exceptions that can arise, also the post doesn’t highlight how limitation of the configuration management tools were solved.
I was recently asked to automate the way a client handles Cisco IOS upgrades. As I’ve been using Ansible a lot lately I decided to start there. Basically the steps required to do the upgrade can be broken down into parts which map quite nicely to tasks in an Ansible playbook. Even if you aren’t using IOS you might find it interesting to see how different Ansible modules can be combined in order to complete a set of tasks.
Even if you have tools in place to automate your network configuration, there’s a good chance that someone has made some manual changes. Perhaps some of your routers were overlooked the last time you send out that access-list, or a new site has been deployed using an old template. In those situations you want to audit the configuration of your network devices. Network configuration audit is one of the features of Nelkit.
Until there is a universal standard which states how to access network devices I believe SNMP is the best option when it comes to determining what a device actually is. While SNMP’s glory days might be long gone, if there in fact were any. There are still some instances where SNMP is more handy than the modern APIs we have now. All network devices respond in the same way to SNMP queries. This can be compared to a REST API where you have to know the URL of the API before you can target a device. Even with SSH which is also a standard the implementation differs between various vendors, while this doesn’t matter if you are connecting to the device manually it does if you are using a script. Looking at Netmiko a Python library for SSH, you have to specify device vendor and class when you connect. This is because SSH doesn’t work the same with Cisco devices, compared to HP devices, as prompts and paging work differently. However with SNMP it always works the same, sure all vendors have specific MIBs that they use. But general queries for standard MIBs work the same. Using a standard MIB it’s possible to identify the manufacturer of a device and often it’s version.
The easiest way to describe Ansible is that it’s a simple but powerful it-automation tool. In the words of its creator Michael DeHaan “I wanted a tool that I could not use for 6 months, come back later, and still remember how it worked.” and it really feels like riding a bike. Even years from now when I take a look at an Ansible Playbook I’m sure I will immediately see what it does. Playbooks, which allows you to run several tasks together, are writting in YAML making them easy to read. This guide is too short to teach you everything about Ansible. Instead the aim is to give you an idea of how you can use Ansible, and how it can help you manage your IT environment. Even if you don’t end up using Ansible, learning tools like it as Chef or Puppet can help you to think differently about how you operate your network.
Once you’ve setup your Cisco ASA, you will want to monitor it to ensure that it’s operating normally. The plugin nm_check_asa_connections for Nagios, and compatible products, can warn your if the number of current connections gets too high. A very high connection count might indicate that there’s an attack under way on one of your servers, you have some hosts on your inside which are part of a botnet and is attacking someone else, or perhaps you’re just about to grow out of your current firewall and need an upgrade to a more powerful box.
When you’re setting up your monitoring configuration for Nagios or compatible software it can be a hassle to decide which interfaces you actually want to monitor. Well rather how to monitor those interfaces. The nm_check_admin_up_oper_down plugin (part of Nelmon) checks the configuration of your network devices and reports a problem if you’ve indicated that the interface should be up.